wholesale sterling gemstone jewelry india Who is the gold coin and who earns this inventor?

wholesale sterling gemstone jewelry india

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  1. arabic calligraphy jewelry wholesale Platinum metal single, element symbols are PT. Including the six metal elements of platinum, 钯, 钌, 钌, 铱, and 锇. The hardness is 4 to 4.5 degrees. The relative density is 21.45, and the proportion is 15-19 or 21.4. Strong ductility. Follow, friction, corrosion resistance; chemical stability at high temperature.n
    The use of platinum and related problems with different purity platinums and related problems of platinum jewelry tags. Platinum and their accessories identifying platinum and similar metal distinguished platinum jewelry and platinum inlaid jewelry processing trade single -consuming standard platinum jewelry production process process introduction process Single -consumption standard description of the problem that wearing platinum should be paid attention ton

    Platinum-the treasure of ancient losesn

    It from prehistoric civilization to princess and pop music protagonist -platinum, the so -called "new metal", its story is far longer than your imagination. Platinum is hidden in meteorites. The earliest records can be traced back to 2 billion years ago. At that time, a meteor hit the earth. Since then, this rare and charming treasure has appeared in the entire historical long river, and sometimes suddenly a few centuries disappeared, which is confusing, but also attracts those who meet it unexpectedly. The ancient Egyptians, the ancient Indian civilization, and the Spanish conquerors have encountered platinum. After that, it appeared again in the 18th century, making the king and the alchemist equally crazy. In the 19th and 20th centuries, platinum was more and more admired and loved by people. Today, it is already the precious metal for movie stars and upper people. Platinum English is called: Platinum.n
    alchemy alchemyn
    The 18th century, platinum began to enter Europe. Soon after, it became an extremely important ingredient in the alchemy's fanaticism. Due to its special chemical properties, when the fearless inventors try to convert lead into gold, platinum becomes necessary ingredients in pharmaceutical agents.n
    The king of metaln
    1751 -When Swedish scientist Tefel West Buddha classified platinum into valuable metals, platinum became the royal favorite. In the 1980s, King Louis XVI France announced that it was the only metal suitable for the king. His jewelrymith Mark Etini Keniti designed several platinum products for him, including a gorgeous sugar can bowl Essencen
    [Edit this paragraph] Platinum and its characteristicsn
    The mineral characteristics of natural platinumn
    The platinum elements include the six metal elements of platinum, 钯, 铑, 钌, 铱, and 锇. In nature, they are often produced together, and they are commonly referred to as precious metal elements with gold and silver.n
    In the classification of minerals, the platinum elements are naturally platinum, including the natural element minerals of 铱, 铑, 钯, and platinum. Platinum elements are equal crystal systems, and single crystals are very rare. Occasionally, small grains of cube or octopus are occasionally produced. Generally, there are irregular granular, branches, grape -shaped or block -like forms. The color and strip marks are silver -white to steel gray; metal luster, opaque. There is no solution of platinum monocular, jagged fracture, and ductility. For electricity and heat conductors.n
    The natural element platinum is a rare valuable metal element in the crust. The element symbol is PT. Natural platinum mineral names are natural platinum. It is a monocular mineral of natural element platinum, and its chemical formula is PT. The proportion of natural platinum is 15.5 to 21.5; the discount rate is 56.5 to 60.0.n
    [Edit this paragraph] The concept of platinum and platinumn
    The official explanation of the International Platinum Association:n
    [Platinum (PT), a naturally generated white precious metal. The state regulations are only 850%of platinum content. And the top jewelry can be called platinum jewelry, and must have a PT logo. Platinum jewelry usually has a purity logo of PT850, PT900, PT950, or PT990. Therefore, platinum jewelry does not exist so -called 18K or 750 (ie 750%) purity.n
    White Gold, its main ingredient is gold, it is not natural white, and it is white because it adds other metals. White K gold is not platinum (platinum). White K gold jewelry usually uses 18K or 750 to indicate the purity of the gold contained in it. .n
    It this shows that in China, only platinum is called platinum; please refer to the "Platinum Credit Card" series launched by major banks.n
    [Edit this paragraph] The physical and chemical characteristics of platinumn
    The metal of the platinum family is beautiful; strong ductility; melting resistance, friction, corrosion resistance; chemical stability at high temperature. Therefore, they are widely used. Among the platinum metals, people are the most familiar and most used in platinum. It is more rare and valuable than gold, silver, etc. in precious metals.n
    It pure platinum is silver white; metallic luster. The color and luster of platinum are naturally natural and long. The hardness is 4 to 4.5 degrees. The relative density is 21.45, and the proportion is 15-19 or 21.4. Strong ductility, can be pulled into very thin platinum silk, rolled into extremely thin platinum foil; strength and toughness are much higher than other precious metals. Even if 1 gram of platinum is pulled into 1.6 kilometers long filament, it will not break. The melting point is as high as 1773.5 ° C. The thermal conductivity is good. The chemical properties are extremely stable, insoluble in strong acid and strong alkali, without oxidation in the air. Platinum does not absorb mercury and has a unique catalytic effect.n
    Wang Shui dissolved platinum -although the two components of Wang Shui could not dissolve the gold, they could unite to dissolve gold. The principle was: nitric acid is a very strong oxidant, which can dissolve extremely Trace gold, while hydrochloric acid can react with the gold ions in the solution to form chloride gold, so that the gold ions leave the solution so that nitric acid can further dissolve the gold.n
    In careful use of the "king water" to wash the necklace "gold".n
    [Edit this paragraph] Category of platinumn
    The platinum content is generally divided into three types: pure platinum, tadpole platinum, and K platinum (white K gold).n
    1, pure platinumn
    The pure platinum refers to platinum with the highest amount of platinum or the highest color. Its white luster is naturally natural and does not fade, which can be matched with any type of skin. Its intensity is twice the gold. Its toughness is better than ordinary precious metals.n
    It pure platinum is often used to make engagement rings to represent the pure virginity of love. Many people think that inlaid diamonds with gold may cause diamond yellowing, which greatly reduces the price of diamonds. With platinum inlaid diamonds, the pure white color of diamonds can be kept, especially as an engagement ring. Platinum inlaid diamonds with platinum are both white and crystal.n
    2. 金 Platinumn
    This platinum refers to alloys composed of 铱 and platinum. Its color is also silver white; has a strong metal luster; high hardness; relatively large density; stable chemical properties. It is the best platinum alloy jewelry material.n
    The content of the following three types can be divided into the following three according to the content of 铂 and platinum. The composition, relative density, and melting point are:n
    10%- -platinum alloy, 21.54, 1788 ℃;n
    15%- -platinum alloy, 21.59, 1821 ℃;n
    5%- -platinum alloy, 21.50, 1779 ℃.n
    3, K platinum (white K gold)n
    It because the hardness of platinum is too large, when making jewelry, in order to reduce the hardness, other metals are needed to make alloys. In order to reduce the cost of platinum jewelry, other metals are often mixed with alloys. Therefore, K platinum appears in the jewelry market. Moreover, people have given different meanings of K platinum. Generally, people use the following first statements.n
    ⑴ One of the meanings of K white goldn
    Strictly speaking, K platinum is not a platinum with lower purity; that is, K platinum does not contain platinum at all. It is entirely a misunderstanding that "K Platinum is a platinum with different numbers and alloys of other metals".n
    I due to the scarce production of platinum, expensive price, and high melting point, general countries rarely use platinum to produce real K platinum. Generally, gold and cricket gold or nickel, silver, copper, zinc and other metals are melted into a white alloy, and it is called "K platinum". Therefore, in fact, K platinum is a white alloy melted with gold and nickel, silver, copper, zinc and other metals. Its main component is still gold. Among them, the gold content is up to 75%. Gold and nickel are melted together, and white alloys are also formed. In addition, there are metals such as silver, copper, zinc, and 钯. Therefore, more precisely, K platinum should be called white K gold. In terms of purity, rarity, durability and natural color and gloss, white K gold cannot be compared with platinum. And, it cannot hit the "PT" logo. You can only use the gold content of "18K" and "14K".n
    The calculation of K platinum color, like K gold, is still calculated based on the gold content. For example, the most common 14K platinum in the market (called "40%K platinum" or "226 gold" in the Hong Kong and Macau market), with 58.5%gold, 22.4%silver, 14.1%copper and 5%nickel melting melting Formed. 18K Platinum (called "60%K Platinum" or "334 Gold" in the Hong Kong and Macau market), which is made of 75%gold, 10%silver, 4-10%zinc, and 5%nickel melting.n
    K platinum is a alloy of platinum and other metals.n
    The melting with gold, nickel, silver, tadpoles, copper, zinc, and platinum can be made into K platinum. K platinum is pure white. In 14K K platinum, it contains 22.4%silver, 14.1%copper, and 5%nickel; in the 18K K platinum, it contains 10.0%silver, 5%nickel, and zinc 4 to 10%. 40 % K platinum appeared in the market and other places in Hong Kong, and 14K words, also known as "226 gold"; 60 % K platinum, 18K words, also called "334 gold".n
    [Edit this paragraph] Platinum mineral type and platinum reservesn
    platinum mineral typen
    The platinum ore refers to the general term of platinum -based metal minerals. It has a variety of mineral types.n
    1. China's platinum minen
    In in China, the platinum metal is mainly produced in copper sulfide -nickel mining bed. Among them, it is mainly produced in Jinchuan copper sulfide -nickel mining bed. In Yunnan platinum ores, more than 20 platinum metal minerals have been found. Among them, the main: arsenic platinum ore, 碲 platinum ore, 铋碲 platinum ore, 铋碲 钯 ore, yellow cricket ore, iron platinum ore, and sulfinin ore. The main body of Yunnan Platinum ore with industrial value belongs to the type of bronze sulfide -nickel -type platinum mines in the late magma melting -nickel -type platinum mines. In 1983, the largest Jinbaoshan platinum mine in China at that time was also one of the platinum ore producing areas with industrial value.n
    2, the world's platinum minesn
    The platinum metal is mainly produced in copper -sulfide -nickel -nickel mines related to magnesium -metaphysical iron rocks (base -super -based rocks). In recent years, some new platinum -containing types have been found in the world. For example: Platinum black shale copper mines, platinum mines in various copper and gold ore veins, platinum -containing metal piming -type copper -molybdenum ore beds, platinum pyrine -type copper ore beds, platinum tinstone -vulcanization -vulcanization Protocol -containing uranium -sulfide minerals and other types.n
    The most famous platinum metal mine in the world, which is the Bush Velde -shaped mixed rock body copper -nickel sulfide contains platinum mines in South Africa. Platinum metal mineralization is concentrated in the Merlins at the grassroots level. South Africa is one of the three major platinum countries in the world.n
    [Edit this paragraph] Platinum reserves and outputn
    The reserves of platinum in nature than gold. According to incomplete statistics, the total reserves of the world's platinum elements mineral resources are about 31,000 tons. Among them, the total platinum reserves are about 14,000 tons. Although more than 60 countries have discovered and mined platinum ores, their reserves are highly concentrated in South Africa and the former Soviet Union. Among them, the platinum reserves of South Africa (Azania) are about 12,000 tons. They are the most famous and the world's largest platinum mine. The platinum reserves of the former Soviet Union were 1866 tons. Natural platinum weighed 8-9 kg in Ural Sand Platinum Mine also obtained natural platinum with a weight of 427.5 grams in the native ore. The total reserves of the two account for 98%of the world's total reserves.n
    The annual output of world platinum is only 85 tons, far less than gold. There are only a few countries in the world producing platinum. Platinum output in South Africa accounts for more than 80% of the global total output; most of the rest are produced by Russia. The annual output of platinum in the world is only 5%of the annual output of gold.n
    [Edit this paragraph] The application and value of platinumn
    The platinum performance is superior and widely used. In the jewelry industry, it is mainly used for decorations and crafts. In the chemical industry, it is used to create catalysts for high -grade chemical utensils, platinum, electrodes, and accelerated chemical reactions. Platinum alloy is a material for making the tip of the tap.n
    [Edit this paragraph] The discovery and initial application of platinumn
    Human understanding and utilization of platinum is far later than gold, about 2,000 years of history. According to archeological data demonstrations, in more than 700 BC, the ancient Egyptians had been able to process platinum into a high level of platinum accessories. Indians in Central America, before Columbus discovered the New World, also prevailed in platinum accessories. However, people in other regions know nothing about platinum. Until the beginning of the 16th century, the Spanish colonial empire gradually formed, and a large number of Spanish adventurers swarmed to Africa and the Americas to explore golden treasures. At that time, when the river in Ecuador was rushed into gold, it was repeatedly found that a white metal was mixed in gold, which was actually precious platinum. However, due to the underdeveloped science and low recognition ability at that time, facing the silver -shaking platinum, the colonial ruler called it "bad silver" and abandoned it.n
    In 1748, the famous Spanish scientist Anthony Luoa found a silver -white natural platinum in Pingto River Gold Mine. He conducted a careful study and found that the chemical properties of natural platinum were very stable, excellent in ductility, high melting point, extremely density, and obviously different from metal silver. As a result, Anthony became the first scholar to study platinum.n
    In 1780, a clever craftsman in Paris created platinum rings, brooches and platinum necklaces for the King of Louis XVI in France. As a result, Louis XVI has become the first person in the world to have platinum jewelry. Since then, the reputation of platinum has been rejuvenated, and it has jumped on the gold jewelry and is spoiled by the relatives of the emperor, the noble official, and the wealthy Jia Shang.n
    [Edit this paragraph] The application of different purity platinumn
    It pure platinum hardness is small. In order to increase hardness, a certain percentage of precious metals such as 钯, 铑, and 铱 must be added. PT950 contains 5%of 铑, 0, and 铱, and the hardness is still relatively low, which is generally used in plain platinum jewelry. PT900 contains 铑, 铱, and 铱 10%, hardness is just right for inlaid jewelry. At present, most platinum rings are made of PT900; but there are also a few manufacturers to make platinum rings with PT950.n
    [Edit this paragraph] Platinum and related issuesn
    Platinum is one of the rare metals in the world's rare jewelry. There are only a few places in South Africa and Russia produced platinum, and the annual output is only 5%of gold. After more than 150 tons, after more than 150 processes, it takes several months. The refined platinum can only be made into a simple rings of digital grams of weight. Such rare, no wonder it feels precious with platinum. Many famous designers call it "the King of Platinum"!n
    The following is its extensive application and people often appear:n
    1. Platinum has strong antioxidant power and high melting point, so it is also used to make aerospace uniforms. Platinum, as a catalyst, is widely used in the tail purification device of the car, plays an important role in protecting the environment.n
    2. During World War II, platinum has very important military use because it is a good catalyst with high melting point. The U.S. government once banned platinum non -military affairs.n
    3. No one's skin is allergic to platinum. Platinum can be used as electrodes for electronic pulse regulator, directly inserted into the heart of the human body, and cure patients with arrhythmia.n
    4. Platinum can also be used to make waterproof watches with a diving depth of 200 meters.n
    Why are platinum prices higher than gold?n
    Because platinum is a rare metal than gold, the amount of platinum is only 5%of gold each year. In addition, processing platinum also requires a higher level of process.n
    Why do you say that it is the safest to use platinum inlaid diamonds?n
    The platinum is more tough than ordinary metals, and can be firmly embedded with diamonds. It is safe but not easy to fall off. Therefore, high -quality diamonds are safer in setting in platinum. Because of this, in the international insurance community, the insurance costs paid by platinum diamond jewelry are lower than that of other diamond jewelry. At the same time, the natural white gloss of platinum can better set off diamonds.n
    Pt is a tag of platinum. PT900 represents platinum jewelry with a pure platinum content of up to 90%. The higher the price of platinum, the more expensive the price of platinum.n
    Ballow price expensive goldn
    In nature, platinum reserves are scarce than gold. The annual output of world platinum is far less than gold. The global jewelry industry is only 3%of gold consumed in the world. Coupled with the high platinum melting point, pure melting platinum is more difficult than gold, and energy consumption is higher. Moreover, processing platinum requires a higher level of technology than processing gold. Therefore, platinum is a kind of precious metal that is more rare and more precious than precious metals such as gold and silver. Platinum is more expensive than gold.n
    [Edit this paragraph] platinum jewelryn
    The diamond inlaid diamonds can keep the diamond pure white instead of not like gold, which may cause diamond yellowing and reduce the value. The natural white luster of platinum can better set off the brilliantness and gorgeous diamonds. Moreover, platinum is more tough than ordinary gold. Use platinum to make necklaces and other jewelry, even if it is processed finely, it is still tough and reliable. Platinum inlaid diamonds and other gemstones are also the strongest and reliable and safest. Diamonds such as diamonds inlaid are not easy to fall off.n
    super light platinum necklace has begun to become my country's trend of jewelry. A ultra -light platinum necklace with a price (1995) is 200 to 400 yuan, and the general wages can be accepted. Moreover, the platinum necklace is short without pendant, simple and elegant, and is loved by women with a multi -chain, one -season, one -chain, or one -piece one chain. Experts believe that the ultra -light platinum necklace has the characteristics of elegant and elegant and educated East and Western culture, and will soon be popular in the country.n
    The platinum jewelry is mainly popular in economically developed countries and regions such as Europe, America, Japan. Among them, the Japanese prefer platinum jewelry, and its sales account for about 75%of the world's total platinum jewelry sales, so it is known as the "platinum country".n
    The component elements in Chinese platinum ethnic groups are very small, and their reserves are less than 1%of the world's reserves. It can only meet the demand for a few percent. It is mainly used for industry. The production of platinum jewelry started late. At present, only a few regions manufacturers produce platinum accessories.n
    , like other valuable jewelry, platinum should also be collected separately from other jewelry to avoid contact with collisions and scratches. Use jewelry cleaning utensils to clean it regularly, or send jewelry shops to ask professionals to clean.n
    [Edit this paragraph] The meaning of platinum jewelry markn
    "PT" is a symbol of chemical elements unique to platinum, and it is also a symbol of platinum jewelry. Platinum cannot be on the proprietary sign of "PT". In accordance with the regulations of the State Technical Supervision Bureau, all platinum jewelry produced in China should marked the "PT" proprietary sign.n
    . Generally, the platinum content of platinum jewelry is shown in a thousand components of platinum. At the same time, platinum content is also one of the basis for platinum jewelry pricing. There are several common platinum content marks:n
    Foot platinum: Platinum content is not less than 990, and the "foot platinum" or "PT990" mark is hit, indicating that the percentage content of the platinum in the jewelry is 99%.n
    950 platinum: Platinum content is not less than 950, and the "platinum 950" or "PT950" tags indicate 95%of the platinum content in the jewelry.n
    900 platinum: Platinum content is not less than 900, and the "platinum 900" or "PT900" mark indicates that the platinum in the jewelry is 90%.n
    The words "PT", "Plat" or "PM" are generally engraved on foreign platinum jewelry. There are such bids a platinum jewelry.n
    In the platinum jewelry produced in my country, in addition to the business name, it also has the words "platinum", "true platinum", "orthopedic platinum" and other words. If the seal on the jewelry is "S" or "Silver", it is a silver jewelry. If the accessories are marked with the words "Platinum" or "K platinum", it indicates that it is not pure platinum jewelry or a platinum jewelry at all.n
    The recognition of platinum and its accessoriesn
    simple identification methodn
    1, colorn
    The platinum is silver -white or gray -white, border between silver and nickel. The silver is shiny and white, and it is easy to be black spots or black spots or black; the texture is delicate and smooth; the hardness is lower than that of platinum.n
    2. Percentn
    The platinum proportion is large, 15-19 or 21.4. The proportion of silver is 10.49. Tripping with platinum and silver jewelry of the same size, they will find their differences.n
    3, fire burningn
    Pu pure platinum heating or cooling down, the color remains unchanged. After the silver fire is burned, its surface will appear red or black and red.n
    4. Bendn
    It pure platinum is easy to bend and restores straight; the color is low, hard and crispy, and the bend is laborious.n
    5. Listeningn
    During the knocking, if the sound of "Toto" does not have rhymes, it is a more pure platinum; if the "Ding Ding" spike is emitted, and there is a rhyme, it is a low -colored platinum.n
    6, mercury wiper testn
    In the nature of platinum non -absorbing mercury to apply mercury on the test gold stone grinding road. If the containment is a gold, silver, silver and platinum -made K platinum.n
    7, nitric acid adding salt testn
    The platinum jewelry to be identified on the tasting stone, cover a layer of salt on the grinding road, do not need to be strict; then, drip it on the salt and get soaked; add some hot paper tobacco ash to the salt to salt; , Stopping a catalytic effect. After 20 minutes, rinse salt and nitric acid with water. After drying, look at the side. If there is no change, it will have a color of about 99%; if there is a slightly acidic trace, it will have a color of about 95%; if the nitric acid traces are large, it will be about 80-90%; When the layer becomes gray, it has a color of about 70%; if all the residues disappear, it is a fake platinum.n
    8. The gas lamp self -appraisaln
    The platinum jewelry to be identified is placed on the mouth of the gas lamp. If it is true platinum, one or two minutes will become red, and the gas lamp will automatically lit. If the jewelry is not platinum, there is no such response.n
    9, hydrogen peroxide reaction methodn
    Platinum is a good catalyst and has a unique catalytic effect. Using this feature, you can quickly identify platinum. Common hydrogen peroxide reaction method. The specific method is: take a little measuring powder and place it in a plastic bottle in the bilingual hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). If the platinum is tied, the hydrogen peroxide will immediately roll with the white waves and decompose a large amount of oxygen. Recycling (it only plays a accelerated decomposition); if it is fake platinum or other white metals, such as lead, silver, aluminum, etc., there is no such response.n
    10, othersn
    It also ask the geological department for electronic probe testing.

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